Winter wheat topdressing is usually based on nitrogen fertilizer, and the topdressing time is mostly in the spring to the jointing stage in the coming spring. After the wheat returned to green, it entered the period of growth center of roots, leaves and alfalfa. The degree of winter wheat production was very sensitive to the response of nitrogen nutrient supply during this period. This is also called the critical period of nitrogen nutrition. If nitrogen deficiency is insufficient during this period, it will result in small seedlings, few tillers, insufficient collectives, and high yields. However, if the nitrogen fertilizer is excessively applied, the nitrogen nutrients will be excessive, which will result in large leaves and large stalks. The group will be too large. In the future, the stems will be long and stalks thin and easy to fall, and the grains are small and the grain weight is light, and it is difficult to obtain high yield. Therefore, the amount of topdressing and topdressing should be determined by the condition of wheat seedlings. The amount of nitrogen applied is usually about 50-70% of the total nitrogen application. For the strong seedlings with good fertility, normal growth and moderate grouping, we should adopt the promotion and control linkage, adhere to the management principle of â€œpre-winter promotion, re-greening control, and attacking and attacking after the jointingâ€, and apply 10 kg per mu in the jointing period. Urea; For the Wangmiao field with more than 900,000 plants, it should be controlled mainly, and try to avoid the consumption of large amounts of nutrients in the seedling stage, resulting in later de-fertilization. Deep rooting, root cutting, and chemical control can be adopted to accelerate the death of small tillers, control the festival, control the growth and promote the growth, and the period of topdressing can be postponed until the jointing, and phosphorus and potassium are the mainstays, and less nitrogen fertilizer is applied; Due to insufficient base fertilizer or late planting, the wintering collective weak seedlings of less than 500,000 crops should be promoted, and the earlier the better, the better the topdressing effect before the Spring Festival is better than the topdressing after the Spring Festival. Or when the temperature rises in the spring, the water is poured into 30-50kg of ammonium per acre or 10-15kg of urea per acre, in order to promote weakening and strengthening, increase effective tillering, increase root system, increase the number of ears per mu, and increase the rate of ear formation. For the lack of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, it can also be compensated by topdressing, but the earlier the better, the better the early application to the greening period.
The method of top dressing is usually combined with watering and spreading. If there are conditions, it is better to use fertilizer application, or to apply better, which can improve fertilizer utilization. Foliar topdressing is more direct and effective when the root absorption capacity is poor in the late growth stage of wheat. Spraying fertilizer varieties and spraying concentrations should be judged based on the specific conditions of wheat growth, soil nutrient status and climate. Foliar nitrogen spray has a good effect from the initial stage of filling to the milk ripening stage. If the appearance of yellowish color, de-fertilization and premature aging occurs, the 1% - 2% urea solution can be used for uniform spraying of the leaves. The spraying time is usually after 4 pm on sunny days or before 9 am, and it is not suitable for spraying on rainy days or noon. For phosphorus-deficient wheat fields, 2% to 4% of superphosphate solution or 0.2% to 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution can be sprayed. Potassium deficiency plots can spray 0.2%-0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, which is obvious for increasing grain weight, increasing maturity and improving the ability to withstand dry hot air.
The normal growth of wheat also requires trace elements such as boron, magnesium, iron, calcium, manganese, sulfur, etc. When the soil supply is insufficient, the effect of spraying the corresponding fertilizer in the middle and late stages of wheat is obvious. When the soil is deficient in boron, foliar spray can be carried out with 0.1-0.2% of borax or boric acid, usually spraying 2-3 times during the flowering stage of wheat. Manganese-deficient plots can be sprayed 2-3 times with 0.05-0.1% manganese sulfate solution during the flowering stage of wheat. Molybdenum-deficient plots can be sprayed 2-3 times with 0.02%-0.05% ammonium molybdate solution. When the wheat is deficient in zinc during the growing season, it can be sprayed 2-3 times with 0.2%-0.4% zinc sulfate. In the case of iron deficiency, 0.2-0.6% ferrous sulfate solution can be sprayed 2-3 times. For copper-deficient plots, foliar spray can be applied 2-3 times with 0.03-0.04% copper sulfate solution. In the absence of magnesium, spray 1 to 2% magnesium sulfate solution 2-3 times.
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